Growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary gland is controlled by the neurosecretory nuclei of the hypothalamus gland, in the base of the brain. These nuclei cells release the peptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH aka somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH aka somatostatin) into the hypophyseal portal venous blood surrounding the pituitary. GH release from the pituitary gland is controlled by the balance of GHRH and GHIH. GH secretion is further affected by sleep patterns, food intake and muscle maintanance requirements.

Specialized cells in the pituitary gland synthesize and secrete GH in a "pulse" manner, in response to the peptide stimuli by the hypothalamus. The largest and most predictable of these GH peaks occurs about an hour after onset of sleep with plasma levels of 13 to 72 ng/mL Otherwise there is wide variation between days and individuals. Almost half of GH secretion occurs during the third and fourth stages of REM sleep. Pulses of GH secretion during the day occur at three to five hour cycles. The plasma concentration of GH during these pulses range from 5 to even 45 ng/mL. Between the pulses, basal GH levels are lower, at less than 5 ng/mL for most of the day and night.

A number of factors are known to affect GH secretion, such as age, gender, diet, exercise, stress, and other hormones. Young adolescents secrete GH at the rate of about 700 µg/day, while healthy adults secrete GH at the rate of about 400 µg/day.

One of the best known stimulants for growth hormone secretion is weightlifting. Lifting weights breaks down muscle tissue, which then requires rebuilding. The presence of broken down muscle proteins (amino acids) in the blood has a stimulatory effect on the release of GHRH from the hypothalamus. Likewise, injesting the amino acids, L Arginine, L Ornithine and others will mimic this condition, although around 10-20 grams per day are needed before growth hormone is significantly elevated. Weightlifting is also known to increase testosterone levels.

CDP Choline is a naturally occuring B vitamin that has been found to increase growth hormone production 4 fold. CDP Choline does this by inhibiting GHIH (somatostatin). CDP Choline has a well established safety record with human consumption, and so it represents an ideal way to raise this important hormone. Somatostatin also regulates insulin and glucago production. Somatostatin generally increases with age, and so growth hormone declines. CDP Choline has a nice long half life, and so is preferred compared to Glumatime, which has a very short half life. Unfortunately, CDP Choline is very expensive, at around $4600 for 22 lbs of crystalline powder. This explains why you normally won't find it in any supplements. The Time Machine, being a "no compromise" product has it, at 2 grams per day. This is the proper dose for good therapeutic effect.

CDP Choline also benefits the brain. CDP Choline (aka cytidine 5'diphosphocholine) is an essential intermediate for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is a major constituent of the grey matter of the brain. CDP choline is metabolized to yield the free nucleotide cytidine and choline. Research has demonstrated that CDP Choline consumption promotes better brain metabolism by enhancing the synthesis of acetylcholine. CDP Choline also restores phospholipid content in the brain and helps regulate the neuronal membrane excitability and osmolarity by its effect on the ATP-dependent sodium and potassium pumps.

An increase of growth hormone 4 fold is not considered unsafe for aging males. Growth hormone peaks during the teen years at 150 µg/kg per day. At age 55, growth hormone levels are approximately 25 µg/kg per day. Thus a 4 fold increase represents a level that would be seen in a 25-35 year old man.

Here are some of the benefits of growth hormone: Increased muscle mass, but not fat. The weight gain is slow, usually between one and two pounds of lean muscle every two to three weeks for those working with weights.

Increased energy and faster metabolism. GH is at it's highest levels during youth and puberty. It is primarily responsible for the heightened levels of energy in children.

Increasing the pulsed amounts of GH can raise your energy levels and metabolism. It can cause you to feel energized and burn fat. GH is also a precursor to IGF-1, which is ultimately responsible for burning fat for energy, and many other health benefits such as prevention of cardiac disease and stroke. IGF-1 also preserves neurons in the brain. GH also helps to shortens the amount of time needed for recovery between workouts. It can strengthen joints and ligaments and heal damaged tissue.

Growth Hormone triggers the production and release of IGF-1, which is another hormone created by the liver. IGF-1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It contributes to childhood growth and is generally believed to have anabolic effects in adults.

IGF-1's primary action is mediated by binding to its specific receptor, the Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, abbreviated as ""IGF1R"", present on many cell types in many tissues. Binding to the IGF1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase, initiates intracellular signaling; IGF-1 is one of the strongest natural activators of the AKT signaling pathway, a stimulator of cell growth and proliferation, and a potent inhibitor of programmed cell death.

IGF-1 is a primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone (GH). Growth hormone is made in the anterior pituitary gland, is released into the blood stream, and then stimulates the liver to produce IGF-1. IGF-1 then stimulates systemic body growth, and has growth-promoting effects on almost every cell in the body, especially skeletal muscle, cartilage, bone, liver, kidney, nerves, skin, hematopoietic cell, and lungs. In addition to the insulin-like effects, IGF-1 can also regulate cell growth and development, especially in nerve cells, as well as cellular DNA synthesis.

Studies have shown that IGF-1 is involved in the development and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons (knuse and Hefti, 1991; Beck 1994) and influence dopamine release in the brain. (Beck et al, 1993). Other studies show that infusion of IGF-1 in aged animal models reversed the age related decline in D2 receptor activated G-proteins (Thornton et al, 1998). These important studies indicated that IGF-1 improves the maximal stimulation of (35S) GTP S binding in response to a D2 receptor agonist, reverses the age related decline in instrinsic efficacy of the agonist, and increases receptor reserve for G protein activation without changing the the D2 receptor density. What this means is that IGF-1 modulates the response of dopamine D2 receptors and any decline in IGF-1 can contribute to an impairment of dopamine neurotransmission. It is the D2 receptor activity that has been shown to be essential in penile erections. Any impairment of D2 receptor response to dopamine will impair erectile function.

As we look at this domino effect, we see that erectile dysfunction can result from impairment of D2 receptors, which can be caused by a decline in IGF-1, which can be caused by a decline in growth hormone, which is the result of of an increase in somatostatin. Thus, by simply inhibiting the inhibitor (somatostatin), we can theoretically stop this cascade of undesirable events. Natural CDP Choline has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of somatostatin.

The above method represents an effiecient, safe and low cost method for raising growth hormone in humans. CDP Choline is part of the Time Machine makeup.

The wrong way. The traditional way to increase growth hormone in human subjects is to inject a synthetic form of growth hormone into the body via a syringe. The benefits that could be expected are offset by the following potential side effects: diabetes, cardiac dysfunction, pseudotumor cerebri, carpel tunnel syndrome, joint pain and acromegaly. Another drawback is the typical cost of over $2000 per month to pay for the shots, which are applied 3 times per day ($25 each). Continued doctor supervision is needed to detect harmful side effects early, in order to treat them.

Needless to say, we don't like the traditional method. The Time Machine represents a new way of approaching the issue of raising growth hormone. In our opinion, it's better to adhere to the body's natural pathways of production and regulation of this important hormone.

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The new science of raising growth hormone naturally